Author Affiliation: Institute of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey.
Uveitis is a major cause of blindness worldwide. Typically, topical and/or systemic corticosteroids are used for the initial treatment of uveitis, but local and systemic adverse effects (eg, cataract, glaucoma, adrenal suppression, and hyperglycemia) may limit long-term use. Alternative immunomodulatory agents include antimetabolites (eg, azathioprine, methotrexate, and mycophenolate mofetil), alkylating agents (eg, cyclophosphamide and chlorambucil), T-cell inhibitors (eg, cyclosporine and tacrolimus), and cytokine inhibitors (eg, infliximab, which blocks tumor necrosis factor-α, and daclizumab, which blocks interleukin-2R). These agents are quite effective, but they too can be associated with serious adverse effects (eg, pancytopenia, hemorrhagic cystitis, opportunistic infections, and lymphoma).
Zarbin MA. Recombinant T-Cell Receptor Ligands in the Treatment of Uveitis. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013;131(3):399–400. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2013.111