THE SITUATION with Russian ophthalmology cannot be fully understood without knowledge of the distinctive history of Russia. This huge country is located on 2 continents and is populated by many different ethnic groups whose rates of development have varied. Russia suffered heavy losses of lives and resources in both world wars, losing 27 million people in World War II alone. Nevertheless, Russia managed to become a world superpower. During the last century Russia has changed forms of government several times from monarchy to totalitarian socialism and now is on its way to becoming a working democracy. The field of ophthalmology continues to evolve as the country changes.
Babich G. Ophthalmology in Russia. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001;119(10):1537–1538. doi:10.1001/archopht.119.10.1537
Artificial Intelligence Resource Center
Customize your JAMA Network experience by selecting one or more topics from the list below.