Developmental dyslexia is commonly recognized as a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by slow and inaccurate word recognition and spelling in an individual with normal intelligence and sensory abilities.1 It is estimated that 7% of the population has this type of learning disorder.2 The leading causative theory is that people with dyslexia have a cognitive phonological processing defect and the disorder is based in cognitive processing of language.3 There is a growing number of functional imaging studies that point to dysfunction in the left posterior temporoparietal, occipitotemporal, and inferior fontal gyrus areas of the brain, which are involved in phonological processing and word recognition. Several candidate genes have been identified, of which most are involved in neuronal migration and axon guidance.3 Evidence-based treatments for developmental dyslexia revolve around reading strategies and instruction in phonics.4
Larson SA. Is Oculomotor Testing Important in Developmental Dyslexia? JAMA Ophthalmol. 2018;136(10):1096–1097. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2018.2805
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