In recent years, public health threats due to Zika virus (ZIKV) and Ebola virus have increased awareness among the ophthalmic community regarding the visual effect of ocular sequelae identified in association with these emerging infectious diseases.1,2 Yellow fever virus (YFV), deemed the “original viral hemorrhagic fever,” resides in the Flavivirus family, which includes other mosquito-borne illnesses, including Dengue (DENV), West Nile (WNV), and ZIKV. Forty-seven countries in Africa (34 [72.3%]) and Central and South America (13 [27.7%]) are endemic for, or have regions endemic for, YFV, underscoring its global health significance.3 Within Brazil, a seasonal pattern of infectivity is observed from December to May. During the 2017 to 2018 yellow fever (YF) season, and 1376 people with YF and 483 deaths were reported.
Shantha JG, Yeh S, Acharya N. Insights From 2 Outbreaks in Southeastern Brazil: Yellow Fever Retinopathy. JAMA Ophthalmol. Published online June 20, 2019. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2019.1936
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