Machines are inexorably taking the place of human analyses of many clinical disorders. Clinical disorders that require human judgment for diagnosis are most vulnerable to a mathematical approach because there is a temptation to blame human behavior and observation for less-than-perfect outcomes. The quintessential example and arguably the potentially most problematic of these disorders in ophthalmology is plus disease. Plus disease refers to dilation and tortuosity of retinal blood vessels in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Its recognition by the practitioner is essential to informing decisions to treat ROP. Plus disease is currently defined by a standard photograph published in several ophthalmology journals.1 Practitioners refer to the picture to make decisions about the presence or absence of plus disease.
Good WV. Automated Algorithms and Retinopathy of Prematurity Treatment. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2019;137(9):1036–1037. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2019.2463
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