Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a leading cause of preventable blindness in children in high-income and middle-income countries. Prevention requires screening of infants who are premature and at risk with a series of examinations using indirect ophthalmoscopy with pupillary dilation, generally starting at 31 to 34 weeks’ postmenstrual age and continuing until the retinal vasculature is sufficiently developed that the risk of ROP has subsided. Infants identified during screening as developing certain stages of ROP (known collectively as type 1 ROP), which can progress to complete traction retinal detachment and permanent blindness, are then treated with laser ablation or, increasingly, with a vascular endothelial growth factor–inhibiting drug.
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Melia BM. Time to Consider Adoption of New Retinopathy of Prematurity Screening Guidelines in the United States. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2020;138(1):38–39. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2019.4622
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