Parkinson disease (PD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease caused by progressive death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. This neurodegeneration classically causes a triad of bradykinesia, rigidity, and rest tremor. Patients with PD also develop nonmotor symptoms, such as olfactory loss, sleep dysfunction, autonomic dysfunction, neuropsychiatric disturbances, and cognitive impairment. Currently, PD is diagnosed clinically using the Movement Disorder Society clinical diagnostic criteria for Parkinson disease. However, some patients present with atypical features, complicating the diagnostic process. Therefore, there remains an unmet clinical need for noninvasive biomarkers that may improve our ability not only to diagnose PD, but also perhaps to identify individuals with presymptomatic or preclinical disease to enable earlier therapeutic interventions. Recently, there has been interest in the idea that the neurosensory retina may provide a window into pathology of the central nervous system.1,2 One potential advantage of retinal biomarkers is that they can be assessed rapidly and noninvasively.
Identify all potential conflicts of interest that might be relevant to your comment.
Conflicts of interest comprise financial interests, activities, and relationships within the past 3 years including but not limited to employment, affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, honoraria or payment, speaker's bureaus, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, donation of medical equipment, or patents planned, pending, or issued.
Err on the side of full disclosure.
If you have no conflicts of interest, check "No potential conflicts of interest" in the box below. The information will be posted with your response.
Not all submitted comments are published. Please see our commenting policy for details.
Lin JB, Apte RS. Seeing Parkinson Disease in the Retina. JAMA Ophthalmol. Published online December 23, 2020. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2020.5719
Coronavirus Resource Center
Customize your JAMA Network experience by selecting one or more topics from the list below.
Create a personal account or sign in to: