Health disparities research is vital to advancing toward health equity in ophthalmology. The path toward better eye health for everyone must include research in populations that consistently have substantial barriers to health care and poor outcomes. We are pleased to see the emergence of interest in health disparities research. As with all research, but especially research involving vulnerable populations, it is imperative that the work is done responsibly. In this Viewpoint, we introduce a framework for health disparities and health disparities research, give examples of health disparities research, and provide recommendations for achieving equity in ophthalmology through research going forward.