The onward movement of general and specialized medical achievement depends on research, clinical observation, contact with patients and teaching.
A sharp distinction between the science of observation and the science of experiment is not valid; they are partners.
The clinician and the research worker have established high standards. Each endeavors to satisfy the exacting conscience of the other. Together they strive for "an accurate and discerning application of science to meet the needs of the individual patient" (Canby Robinson) ; they strive, too, for the same discerning application of science to the prevention of disease, which is the outstanding tendency in contemporary medical effort.
Obviously, everywhere in the world progress is brought about by specialization and cooperation. As a distinguished English surgeon more than a quarter of a century ago wrote : "The growth of specialism is inevitable, indeed, necessary. . . . But it behooves every enlightened
de SCHWEINITZ GE. SOME OF THE PHASES AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF AMERICAN OPHTHALMOLOGY. Arch Ophthalmol. 1930;3(1):1–30. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/archopht.1930.00810030009001
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