Since Turk in 1853 called attention to retinal congestion and hemorrhages in all tumors of the brain, and von Graefe in 1860 described "choked disk" and attributed the condition to pressure, either direct or indirect, against the cavernous sinuses, both opththalmologists and neurologists have tried to explain, through various theories and many experiments, the actual mechanism whereby the disk becomes congested, edematous and, finally, choked.
In a previous paper1 attention was called to the various theories and a return to the mechanical theory was suggested as the probable, or at least a reasonable, solution to the problem. In that paper no effort was made to explain the absence of choked disk in certain cases of tumor of the brain in which normally one would expect to find a marked choking, for instance, in tumors of the cerebellopontile angle, but I believe that a reasonable explanation can be found
SWIFT GW. THE TRANSVERSE SINUS AND ITS RELATION TO CHOKED DISK. Arch Ophthalmol. 1930;3(1):47–70. doi:10.1001/archopht.1930.00810030055003
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