In dealing with the conditioned reflex, consideration must be given to the response mechanism of the individual, which may be divided roughly into three parts : the receptors, the nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord, and the effectors. When a stimulus impinges on a receptor, a neural impulse passes from it to the central nervous system, where certain neural events occur, resulting in an impulse to some effector, the functioning of which constitutes a response. A relatively definite response to a relatively definite stimulus is called a reflex. The common reflex does not involve the cortex and may occur even during sleep. The conditioned reflex, on the other hand, does involve the higher centers.
It has been demonstrated by various physiologists, notably Pavlov, that stimuli may become so intimately associated that the associated stimulus alone produces the same response as the original stimulus. A sensation from any receptor, occurring
EAMES TH. OCULAR ASPECTS OF CONDITIONED REFLEXES. Arch Ophthalmol. 1930;3(6):758–760. doi:10.1001/archopht.1930.00810080106009
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