For almost thirty years, spinal anesthesia has been used with good results on many thousands of patients. The mortality figures are usually given as 1 in 1,000, but Cahen's are 6 in 800, Vianney's 2 in 300 and Condray's 1 in 400. Complications and sequelae are rare, the most common and earliest being syncope and hypotension. Later, and more rarely, the nervous system is involved, resulting in paralysis of an extra-ocular muscle as the most common phenomenon. However, other signs of involvement of the nervous system are tetanic contractures, anesthesia, hyperesthesia, anxiety neurosis and hallucinations. There may be headache, backache, vomiting, neuralgia or paresthesia, or blurring of vision and scintillating scotomas may be the forerunners of a muscle weakness. The latter may not be marked at first, but usually becomes more severe quickly and takes several months to clear up entirely. In some cases, paralysis of the muscle is
LEVINE J. PARALYSIS OF AN EXTRA-OCULAR MUSCLE AFTER SPINAL ANESTHESIA. Arch Ophthalmol. 1930;4(4):516–520. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/archopht.1930.00810120076007
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