The literature dealing with the subject of extra-ocular muscle imbalance would indicate that deviations from the normal balance caused by abnormalities of the laterally acting muscles are more generally understood, both as to diagnosis and treatment, than are those caused by abnormalities of the vertically acting muscles. A comparatively small number of papers and reports on hyperphoria and hypertropia are available ; perhaps the chief impression acquired from a study of these comes from the uncertainty with which the authors, with but few exceptions, treat their subject. In what follows will be found the facts collected and the conclusions formed from an examination of the subject of the vertical muscle deviations by means of literary research, supplemented by the observation of a group of patients treated for vertical strabismus at the Herman Knapp Memorial Eye Hospital.
Pertinent to an understanding of the anomalies of the vertically acting extra-ocular
SMITH HC. IMBALANCE OF THE VERTICALLY ACTING EXTRA-OCULAR MUSCLES. Arch Ophthalmol. 1930;4(4):533–544. doi:10.1001/archopht.1930.00810120093010
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