Since strabismus was described by the earliest medical writers its nature has been the subject of much controversy. Many attempts have been made to explain the problem of squint, especially its origin and development. Many valuable contributions have been added from time to time. Worthy hypotheses have been promulgated ; numerous ideas as to its etiology have been followed by many ingenious methods for its correction. The three outstanding hypotheses that have enjoyed popularity are: (1) the muscular hypothesis, (2) the accommodation hypothesis of Donders,1 and (3) Worth's2 fusion hypothesis. These hypotheses are so well known to ophthalmologists and are so widely published that repetition is unnecessary. Each hypothesis contains truths, but none offers a plausible explanation for the origin and development of all cases of squint. Each hypothesis has many advocates among the leading members of the profession, but the very multiplicity of the explanations denotes the inadequacy
BARKAN O, BARKAN H, RANDEL HO, SMITH HG. SQUINT: ITS PHYSIOPATHOLOGY AND SURGICAL TREATMENT. Arch Ophthalmol. 1931;5(5):691–703. doi:10.1001/archopht.1931.00820050011001
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