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December 1931


Author Affiliations

From the Department of Ophthalmology of the University of Pennsylvania.

Arch Ophthalmol. 1931;6(6):921-930. doi:10.1001/archopht.1931.00820070952010

Papilledema has long been of particular interest to ophthalmologists. and the literature in regard to this subject is large. The present review, however, will be limited to those contributions that are particularly concerned with the method of formation and the pathology of papilledema.

The theories in regard to the formation of papilledema may be divided into the mechanical and the nonmechanical types. The mechanical types may be concerned with an interference with either the lymph flow or the vascular supply of the optic nerve. The nonmechanical types may be due either to an inflammation or to a toxic agent.

At the present time one or another of the mechanical theories holds the preference. It is of historical interest that the first theory advanced, namely, that of Graefe,1 in 1860, was mechanical in its view. Graefe believed that the tumor of the brain pressed either directly or indirectly