At the International Ophthalmological Congress at Amsterdam in 1929 a number of electric ophthalmoscopes were exhibited which were either unknown or little known in America. After examining these instruments and later temporarily possessing several of them it seemed that it might be of interest to supplement the excellent articles of Graves, Landon and Friedenwald and describe the advances in ophthalmoscopic construction in the last ten years. Several of my friends in foreign clinics have supplemented my own observations with their experiences with instruments that I have not personally used, and a number of manufacturers of ophthalmoscopes provided me with sectional drawings and particulars of the construction of the instruments.
The electric ophthalmoscope is readily divisible into several component parts, such as the observing lenses, light source, condensers, diaphragms, color filters, mirrors, measuring devices and slit-lamp illumination adjustments. Of all these divisions the viewing lenses have changed
BELL WO. RECENT ADVANCES IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE OPHTHALMOSCOPE. Arch Ophthalmol. 1932;7(4):601–612. doi:10.1001/archopht.1932.00820110115009
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