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August 1932

The Experimental Study of Reading.

Arch Ophthalmol. 1932;8(2):312-313. doi:10.1001/archopht.1932.00820150164024

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Following a history of the experiments determining and recording ocular movements made by many observers from Javal (in 1878) to her own exact studies, described in a monograph reviewed in the December, 1931, issue of the Archives (page 966), there are chapters giving a detailed account of types and sensations of ocular movements.

Theories of visual perception, so rapid and complex and difficult to analyze, are considered, including those advanced by the German School of Gestalt psychology.

It is shown that voluntary and reflex movements about the field are in general inaccurate and erratic. To pass from one part of the field to another it was usually necessary to execute correcting movements, interspersed with fixation pauses, during which the eye reviewed its position. But in mature adult reading a series of regular and rhythmic backward and forward movements developed, the forward movements alternating regularly with fixation pauses of comparatively

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