The movements of the eyes produced by voluntary or reflex impulses (mainly labyrinthine and retinal, but also partly cochlear impulses) are, as a rule, associated movements, both eyes moving in the same direction. It must be remembered that cortical localization is concerned with ocular movements, not with single muscles as are the nuclei of the ocular muscles, stimulation of the cortex producing, like the voluntary impulse, movements of both eyes in the same direction (conjugate deviation of both eyes). Such conjugate movements of the eyes may be produced experimentally by stimulation of three areas, namely, the frontal lobe, the occipital lobe (especially the gyrus angularis, found on the border between the parietal and the occipital lobe) and the temporal lobe. By stimulation of the frontal center (prerolandic area, Fritsch and Hitzig, Ferrier, Mott and Schaefer), one causes, not only horizontal movements of both eyes to the opposite side, combined
SPIEGEL EA. PHYSIOPATHOLOGY OF THE VOLUNTARY AND REFLEX INNERVATION OF OCULAR MOVEMENTS. Arch Ophthalmol. 1932;8(5):738–753. doi:10.1001/archopht.1932.00820180110011
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