The essence of myopia is that parallel rays come to a focus in front of the retina. The type of myopia that will be considered is that known as axial myopia, the main cause of which is an elongation of the axis of the eye. The elongation is caused by distention of the sclera, which is bulged out posteriorly.
The cause of myopia has puzzled ophthalmologists since the condition was recognized. There are a bewilderment of opinion and a variety of conclusions. It is not my intention to review all the theories offered to explain myopia. I shall mention only those proposed recently and which seem to have some basis.
It was Johanness Kepler who in 1604 defined the science of refraction by means of convex and concave glasses as well as by the eye, and especially as regards myopia.
As early as 1644 a Chinese ophthalmologist (Pi)
RODIN FH. ETIOLOGY OF MYOPIA. Arch Ophthalmol. 1933;9(2):264–279. doi:10.1001/archopht.1933.00830010277012
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