[Skip to Navigation]
April 1933


Arch Ophthalmol. 1933;9(4):579-607. doi:10.1001/archopht.1933.00830010601008


Varieties of Binocular Movements.—When one analyzes the movements performed by the two eyes when working together, one is struck by the fact that, with unimportant exceptions, these movements are limited to those subserving binocular fixation.

Thus, in order to produce the binocular fixation of distant objects, the visual lines must be parallel. In harmony with this fact, one finds that there is a whole series of movements—conjugate or parallel movements, or versions—in which the visual line of one eye is kept strictly parallel with that of the other; and, moreover, the vertical meridians of the two corneas also remain parallel, no matter how the eye is directed.1

The second great class of associated movements is composed of the disjunctive movements or vergences, in which the visual axis or vertical meridians are made to separate or come together. The vergences are particularly

Add or change institution