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Article
May 1934

OCULAR OBSERVATIONS AND STUDIES OF THE NEW-BORN: WITH A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

Author Affiliations

SAN FRANCISCO
From the Obstetric and Ophthalmic Services of St. Luke's Hospital.

Arch Ophthalmol. 1934;11(5):838-867. doi:10.1001/archopht.1934.00830120098011
Abstract

There is no time in life that is filled with more potential danger than the few hours occupied by birth. The fetal head is a tender object, but its structure displays a remarkable combination of qualities which enables it to resist injuries. The brain of the infant is doubtless fitted by nature to withstand without injury a great amount of molding and manipulation. During its passage through the birth canal, the head is subjected to the action of compressive forces and therefore is in a state of stress. At every labor the infant's head is molded a certain amount, the commonest alteration in shape being elongation in a vertical direction and a corresponding shortening in the anteroposterior diameter. This is the result of pressure applied at the opposite ends of the diameter lying between the occiput and the forehead. If alteration in the shape of the head becomes too

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