Although the blood vessels of the retina are available for direct observation in the living animal, their physiologic and pharmacologic responses are not well understood. Many ideas are accepted, based on probability and traditional opinion rather than on adequate evidence. The main difficulties which have stood in the way of obtaining accurate information have been the need for sufficient magnification to discern small changes in the size of the vessels and records to eliminate the necessity for comparison by memory.
Regarding the study of the retinal circulation, Parsons1 once made the statement that, "The ophthalmoscopic method as applied to animals is open to grave doubt as it is almost impossible to be certain of such minute changes, especially when the optical conditions and the bias of preconceived ideas are taken into consideration." Although recent developments of the ophthalmoscope permit of a high grade of optical accuracy, particularly as applied
LAMBERT RK. A METHOD FOR THE STUDY OF THE RETINAL CIRCULATION. Arch Ophthalmol. 1934;12(6):868–873. doi:10.1001/archopht.1934.00830190082008
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