Papilledema, defined as edema of the optic disk, produced by increased intracranial pressure, is one of the most important symptoms of intracranial as well as of ocular pathologic change. The great importance of this symptom was recognized by the great Albrecht von Graefe. Ophthalmologists have gradually learned to distinguish between the actual conditions of choked disk, optic neuritis and pseudoneuritis, and have become familiar with the aspect of this symptomatic appearance of the disk when originating from causes other than increased intracranial pressure. As causes of the appearance of papilledema one considers immediate pressure on the optic nerve and, under certain conditions, diminished intra-ocular pressure.
It is known that papilledema is really only an edematous swelling of the intra-ocular portion of the optic nerve without any of the inflammatory changes which can and do appear in later stages of the condition. As long as
LAUBER H. THE FORMATION OF PAPILLEDEMA. Arch Ophthalmol. 1935;13(5):733–743. doi:10.1001/archopht.1935.00840050011001
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