Slowly progressive unilateral exophthalmos associated with ophthalmoplegia, primary optic atrophy and hyperplastic thickening of the posterior orbital plate constitute a definite clinical entity. This syndrome is produced by a dural endothelioma or "meningioma" of the middle cranial fossa, arising from the region of the sphenoid ridge and greater wing of the sphenoid bone. This tumor has been variously described as meningioma of the sphenoid ridge, retro-orbital meningioma and meningioma en plaque (because of its peculiar flat form).
This condition was first clearly established as a definite clinicopathologic entity by Cushing1 in 1922. Ten years later Elsberg, Hare and Dyke2 reported a series of similar cases and Dr. Elsberg again discussed this subject at the meeting of the Section of Ophthalmology of the New York Academy of Medicine, May 21, 1934. Recently Alpers and Groff3 of the neurosurgical clinic of Frazier wrote about "meningeal fibroblastomas" arising
COHEN M, SCARFF JE. UNILATERAL EXOPHTHALMOS PRODUCED BY A MENINGIOMA OF THE MIDDLE CRANIAL FOSSA: REPORT OF A CASE. Arch Ophthalmol. 1935;13(5):771–778. doi:10.1001/archopht.1935.00840050049004
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