Abnormal protrusion of the eyeball is encountered in a wide variety of both local and general conditions. This article is devoted to constitutional diseases in which exophthalmos appears as either a complication or a part of the general abnormality. A certain amount of overlapping exists, because much of the exophthalmos which is encountered in general disease depends on the local accumulation in the orbit of tumors, hematomas or other masses, on the production of stasis in the orbital veins or on edema of the orbital tissues, all of which may result in forward dislocation of the eyeball. This generalization at times applies to the exophthalmos of exophthalmic goiter, which will be considered presently. It is partly, often wholly, applicable to the exophthalmos that occurs occasionally in other constitutional abnormalities.
EXOPHTHALMOS IN DISEASES OTHER THAN EXOPHTHALMIC GOITER
Exophthalmos is rare in syphilis. Delord1 described bilateral protrusion of the eyes
PLUMMER WA, WILDER RM. ETIOLOGY OF EXOPHTHALMOS: CONSTITUTIONAL FACTORS, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO EXOPHTHALMIC GOITER. Arch Ophthalmol. 1935;13(5):833–852. doi:10.1001/archopht.1935.00840050111011
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