This syndrome associated with congenital deficiency of abduction was described in detail by Duane1 in 1905 after he had collected reports of fifty-four cases, five of which were cases of bilateral deficiency. Prior to that a number of cases had been reported by Sinclair,2 Türk,3 Bahr,4 Friedenwald5 and Treacher Collins,6 and a complete discussion of the symptoms had been presented by J. Wolff7 in 1900 and by Evans8 in 1903. More recently Harold Gifford,9 Bielschowsky10 and Birch-Hirschfeld11 have presented full descriptions of this complex syndrome.
The syndrome is characterized by: (1) deficiency of abduction, (2) partial deficiency of adduction, (3) retraction of the globe when the eye is adducted, (4) oblique movement when adduction is attempted, (5) narrowing of the palpebral fissure during adduction and (6) deficiency of convergence.
A varied clinical picture is presented by this syndrome,
MENGEL WG. BILATERAL CONGENITAL DEFICIENCY OF ABDUCTION WITH RETRACTION (DUANE SYNDROME): REPORT OF A CASE. Arch Ophthalmol. 1935;13(6):981–984. doi:10.1001/archopht.1935.00840060063004
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