[Skip to Navigation]
September 1935


Author Affiliations

Director of the Ophthalmologic Clinic of the Kuban Medical Institute KRASNODAR, U. S. S. R.; New York

Arch Ophthalmol. 1935;14(3):412-420. doi:10.1001/archopht.1935.00840090098005

This article is only available in the PDF format. Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and tables.


The approach to the understanding of the genesis of the refraction of the human eye lies in a consideration of the phylogenetic, ontogenetic and finally the sociogenetic factors involved. It seems scarcely necessary to call attention to the fact that in the adaptive reactions of animals to their physical and biologic surroundings the eye, one of the principal organs connecting the living being with its environment, plays an important part. Assuming that the normal anatomic and refraction forms for a given species are those which the organism has acquired during its struggle for life in a given locality, one might expect uniformity in the refraction and appearance of the eyes of the group ; for individuals with unadapted refraction must have been eliminated from life or from the locality in question. Actually, however, this uniformity is not quite rigid, because there are variable factors in a locality which leave their

First Page Preview View Large
First page PDF preview
First page PDF preview
Add or change institution