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February 1936

Die Störungen des Lichtreflexes der Pupille bei den luetischen Erkrankungen des Zentralnervensystems. Beiträge zur Frühdiagnostik der Lues nervosa.

Arch Ophthalmol. 1936;15(2):365-366. doi:10.1001/archopht.1936.00840140215019

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This book is based on the study of one hundred patients presenting syphilitic disorders of the central nervous system, who were examined and followed clinically during a period of ten years.

Since the ordinary methods of examination do not bring out the details of pupillary reaction, Löwenstein refined on the observation and the recording of these reactions by making cinematic photographs of the two pupils before, during and after exposure of one eye to light. His procedure is as follows: The eyes are illuminated continuously from each side by light which has passed through a blue filter. A motion picture camera run by a motor and giving fourteen exposures to the second is started, while the patient fixes a distant object. A light of several thousand candle power is then flashed on one eye for a second, while the photography continues. The film so obtained is projected on a screen,

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