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March 1936


Author Affiliations

From the Department of Ophthalmology, Oscar Johnson Institute, Washington University. The experimental work was commenced while the author was a National Research Fellow in the Biological Sciences and completed while he was a beneficiary of a grant from the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology.

Arch Ophthalmol. 1936;15(3):443-456. doi:10.1001/archopht.1936.00840150077005

An important fact in regard to binocular vision is that although separate impressions are formed on the two retinas, somehow they become integrated before they reach consciousness, so that a person is not aware of perceiving separately with his two eyes. Johannes Müller alleged that this fact can be explained on the theory that paths from corresponding points of the two eyes converge on common cerebral paths. Helmholtz objected to this theory because he could not see how it could account for the voluntary suppression of vision in one eye. He expressed the belief that the paths from the two eyes remain separate up to the point to which consciousness is adjunct and that the integration of the two monocular impressions is a psychic affair and the suppression of one of the images is simply a matter of the mind's ignoring it.1 Helmholtz' objection has been obviated by the

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