The term inflammatory exophthalmos is applied to exophthalmos in which external ocular signs of inflammation are present, in contradistinction to the noninflammatory form, such as, for instance, exophthalmic goiter. Inflammatory exophthalmos may involve one or both eyes and should always be regarded as a serious condition, not only because of possible deterioration of vision but because of the danger of serious complications, such as meningitis, abscess of the brain and thrombosis of the cavernous sinus.
This inflammatory form of exophthalmos is the result of an inflammatory reaction in the retrobulbar tissue, due mainly to a catarrhal disorder of the accessory sinuses. This cause alone, with its effect on the orbital tissue and eye, will be considered in this paper.
Before sinusitis can be regarded as the etiologic factor all other possible causes should be excluded, especially in doubtful cases. These other causes may include traumatism causing orbital hemorrhage
COHEN M. INFLAMMATORY EXOPHTHALMOS IN CATARRHAL DISORDERS OF THE ACCESSORY SINUSES. Arch Ophthalmol. 1936;15(3):457–476. doi:10.1001/archopht.1936.00840150091006
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