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Article
March 1936

MYOPIA AND EXOPHORIA

Arch Ophthalmol. 1936;15(3):549-550. doi:10.1001/archopht.1936.00840150183013

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Abstract

To the Editor:—In my clinical note in the October issue of the Archives (14: 624, 1935) I used the term tonic myopia, a term which has caused some question on the part of several ophthalmologists. Dr. Marlow, in his letter in the November issue of the Archives (14:825, 1935), likewise remarked that he did not see any difference between this form of myopia and spasm of accommodation. In view of this, a few words of explanation may not be amiss.

My conception of tonic myopia is based on the idea, not yet fully proved, of the existence of active negative accommodation as well as of active positive accommodation. In other words, active accommodation is to be regarded not as a one way activity always resulting in an increase of refractive power but as a twofold activity capable either of an increase of refractive power (positive accommodation) or of a

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