A variety of appliances have been used or devised for ophthalmostatometry, that is, the measurement of the position of the eyeball within the orbit. According to Morax,1 the earliest special model was the exophthalmometer of Cohn,2 shown in 1868 at the Paris meeting of the International Congress of Ophthalmology. Volkman3 in 1869 and Emmert Keyser4 and Zehender5 in 1870 individually proposed modifications of Cohn's instrument. To Zehender belongs the credit for the first use of mirrors in recording the degree of exophthalmos. Snellen6 presented a further modification, in the textbook of de Wecker and Landolt. A more elaborate instrument was described by Ambriolet7 in 1893, and perhaps the most complete (as well as the most cumbersome) of all the models was the statometer which Birch-Hirschfeld8 demonstrated in 1900. Much earlier, Donders had used the ophthalmometer of Helmholtz to
LUEDDE WH. A TRANSPARENT EXOPHTHALMOMETER. Arch Ophthalmol. 1936;16(4):681–683. doi:10.1001/archopht.1936.00840220139015
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