While the cortical innervation of the skeletal muscles has been studied in much detail, there exists still much uncertainty about the cortical innervation of ocular muscles. Even the existence of such cortical centers was recently questioned by one of the most distinguished students of the problem (Muskens), contrary to the general opinion that assumes the existence of ocular centers in the frontal and occipital lobes since Ferrier's1 classic experiments. Muskens2 referred to stimulation experiments of Leyton and Sherrington3 in the cortex of monkeys and apes showing that stronger stimuli are required to produce ocular movements than to produce responses of the skeletal muscles. Muskens was therefore inclined to presume that the eye movements observed in stimulation of the cerebral cortex are due to an escape of the current to the basal ganglions. He assumed that the lentiform nucleus is the site of origin of a centrifugal
SPIEGEL EA, SCALA NP. THE CORTICAL INNERVATION OF OCULAR MOVEMENTS. Arch Ophthalmol. 1936;16(6):967–981. doi:10.1001/archopht.1936.00840240067006
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