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Increasing demands are being made on oculists and school nurses for the determination of the visual acuity of the preschool child and of the child in the first and second grades. The National Society for the Prevention of Blindness recommends the use of the Snellen E chart for many good reasons, which cannot be explained here, but this chart has the following disadvantages: variability in illumination as it is used in various schools and offices ; awkwardness found by the examiner in turning from the chart to the child and back again, and inability of many of the younger children to get the idea of change in the direction of the "legs" of the E. A new apparatus was made to retain all the advantages of the Snellen E chart and, in addition, to have the standardized illumination, portability and
Palmer Good. A STANDARDIZED APPARATUS FOR TESTING THE VISUAL ACUITY OF THE PRESCHOOL CHILD. Arch Ophthalmol. 1938;19(2):251–252. doi:10.1001/archopht.1938.00850140093011