The clinical application of orthoptic procedure in the treatment of imbalance of the ocular muscles has led to the publication of various reports which, because of differing criteria of success, incomplete records and inadequate control groups, show inconsistent results and justify skepticism as to the legitimate place of orthoptic training in ophthalmology. Indiscriminate use of ocular exercise by unqualified persons has contributed to the popular misconception of orthoptic procedure as a substitute for glasses or surgical treatment rather than a supplementary technic useful to the ophthalmologist for the diagnosis and treatment of defects of binocular vision. The physiologic basis for binocular vision and the clinical diagnosis of its anomalies will be briefly reviewed as a preface to a more detailed discussion of actual orthoptic procedure, which may contribute to more careful clinical work and at the same time indicate the need for controlled laboratory research in this field.
SHAAD DJ. BINOCULAR VISION AND ORTHOPTIC PROCEDURE. Arch Ophthalmol. 1938;20(3):477–501. doi:10.1001/archopht.1938.00850210133014
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