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Article
April 1939

PSYCHOLOGIC CONSIDERATIONS IN THE STUDY OF BINOCULAR FUNCTION

Arch Ophthalmol. 1939;21(4):662-670. doi:10.1001/archopht.1939.00860040100010
Abstract

The study of binocular function requires a psychologic as well as a clinical understanding of individual responses more than other branches of ophthalmologic investigation. Physicians trained mainly in established clinical methods may neglect this psychologic approach to the study of binocular function and the need for binocular training.

As a prerequisite to this approach, one should know (1) what constitutes an average normal binocular response on a binocular instrument, such as a synoptophore or a calibrated stereoscope; (2) how such readings may be correlated with established clinical methods of examination ; (3) in what different ways binocular imbalance may become manifest, and (4) to what extent abnormal responses represent psychologic or functional impairments.

The psychologic elements are interrelated with certain physiologic responses. These are represented by the muscular movements concerned in the changing fixation of the two eyes that follow two targets which move toward or away from each other, as

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