Since an anomaly of the vertically acting muscles is often associated with an anomaly of the laterally acting muscles, a study of 11,600 persons was made in the hope of gaining some definite evidence as to the frequency of occurrence of the condition producing the vertical anomaly and the effect of one condition on the other. Of this group, 1,955 showed some anomaly of the motor muscles as judged from the norms given by Duane, and of these, 715, or 36.6 per cent, had a vertical anomaly.
Convergence excess alone or complicated with divergence insufficiency was found in 16.6 per cent, with a vertical deviation in 39.8 per cent. Divergence insufficiency alone or complicated by a secondary convergence excess was found in 2.5 per cent, with a vertical deviation in 59 per cent. Divergence excess alone or complicated by a secondary convergence insufficiency was found in 7.5 per cent, with
WHITE JW, BROWN HW. OCCURRENCE OF VERTICAL ANOMALIES ASSOCIATED WITH CONVERGENT AND DIVERGENT ANOMALIES: A CLINICAL STUDY. Arch Ophthalmol. 1939;21(6):999–1009. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/archopht.1939.00860060109007
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