Man has always striven to preserve his youthful vigor and to prolong his existence. The means he employed were not always the same, for they depended in a large measure on his state of culture. In his primitive state, when he believed that physical abnormalities were brought about by supernatural forces, he employed magic. Later, when his observation of the heavenly bodies stirred his imagination, he supplemented his healing art with the pseudoscience of astrology. Both of these methods to alleviate disease were often associated with religion, which claimed for itself the ability to cure disease by divine power. Modern medicine, which has undergone an extensive evolution, has taken its origin from magic and other occult sciences, chief of which is the doctrine of demonology.1
From the very dawn of history the belief in demons was universal. "There are people without a God," said Huxley, "but there are no
GORDON BL. OCULISTS AND OCCULTISTS: DEMONOLOGY AND THE EYE. Arch Ophthalmol. 1939;22(1):25–65. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/archopht.1939.00860070041003
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