The various methods of treating chronic dacryocystitis by the creation of an artificial passage into the nose have been reviewed extensively within recent years. Noteworthy in this respect are the publications of Chandler1 and of Kaleff,2 in which the advantages and disadvantages of the modifications of the Toti operation (dacryocystorhinostomy) are fully discussed. These operative procedures can properly be classified into four groups, all being external in type :
Group 1 consists of procedures in which the anterior and posterior flaps of nasal mucous membrane and lacrimal sac respectively are sutured together, such as the method of Ohm3 or of Depuy-Dutemps and Bourguet.4
Group 2 consists of procedures in which one or more flaps of nasal mucous membrane are sutured to the anterior or posterior wall of the sac, but without forming an exact or complete anastomosis (Basterra5 and Kuhnt6).
Group 3 consists of procedures
STOKES WH. TRANSPLANTATION (IMPLANTATION) OF THE LACRIMAL SAC IN CHRONIC DACRYOCYSTITIS. Arch Ophthalmol. 1939;22(2):193–210. doi:10.1001/archopht.1939.00860080037003
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