As a rule it is only when defects of the visual field develop slowly that their initial stages can be examined. The study of the methods for the detection of early changes is therefore confined to conditions in which the onset is gradual, such as pressure from a tumor, chronic toxic amblyopia and chronic glaucoma, and is best undertaken with eyes in which the presence of defects is suspected although visual symptoms have not been noticed by the patient. The apparently normal field in cases of supposedly unilateral glaucoma or toxic amblyopia and the fields in cases of enlargement of the pituitary body in which there are no visual symptoms afford suitable material for investigation.
These incipient changes can be elicited only by weak stimuli, such as are capable of disclosing a slight lowering of visual function in the affected area. In this connection two questions arise: First, what are
TRAQUAIR HM. CLINICAL DETECTION OF EARLY CHANGES IN THE VISUAL FIELD. Arch Ophthalmol. 1939;22(6):947–967. doi:10.1001/archopht.1939.00860120019001
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