Exophthalmos, which means protrusion of the eyeball from the socket, is an interesting condition for two reasons, namely, the great variety of lesions which produce it and the serious consequences it may cause to sight or life. The position of the eyeball in its socket varies in many persons and is dependent on the amount of fat present in the orbit, the configuration of the face and the size of the globe, highly myopic or buphthalmic eyes being apparently proptosed because of their large size. The average position of the eyeball in the orbit is such that if a straight edge is applied to the upper and lower margins of the orbit in a vertical direction, the cornea will be just posterior to it.
In cases of mild unilateral exophthalmos it is often difficult to be sure that the true exophthalmos is present. In these cases Bergin1 has the
McNAIR SS. EXOPHTHALMOS, WITHOUT PULSATION, DUE TO ARTERIOVENOUS ANEURYSM: REPORT OF CASE. Arch Ophthalmol. 1940;23(1):22–27. doi:10.1001/archopht.1940.00860130034002
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