Although it is commonly recognized among ophthalmologists that the use of a cycloplegic drug is a necessity in the refraction of all persons who have not reached the age of presbyopia, yet it cannot be said that any truly general rule exists with respect to the use of cycloplegics in the refraction of presbyopic patients.
Many refractionists regard it as unnecessary to inconvenience their patients by the administration of a cycloplegic when the presence of presbyopia makes manifest refraction feasible. Others, of no less repute, do not believe that refraction can be done with scientific precision for even the most presbyopic person without cycloplegia.
The purpose of this study was to make a careful measurement of the refraction under dynamic and under static conditions and to compare the results in order definitely to demonstrate whether dynamic methods can be expected to uncover the full static correction for the average patient
SUDRANSKI HF. RELATION OF DYNAMIC TO STATIC REFRACTION IN PRESBYOPIC PATIENTS FORTY THROUGH FIFTY YEARS OF AGE. Arch Ophthalmol. 1940;23(3):545–553. doi:10.1001/archopht.1940.00860130611009
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