The examination of the optic nerve is an important part of every examination of the fundus. In attempting to determine whether or not a pathologic process is present, it is essential that the normal disk and its variations, as well as the congenital anomalies, be thoroughly understood. For this reason the major portion of this review will be devoted to the normal disk and its congenital variations.
THE NORMAL DISK AND ITS ANOMALIES
In the examination of a disk a certain routine has become a fixed habit. This routine will be adhered to in the following discussion.
—It is important that the media be examined before observing the fundus. Fine opacities in the cornea, lens or vitreous may cause relatively little loss of vision and yet be sufficient to interfere with the detailed examination of the disk. In addition, the presence of these opacities has a tendency to make
CORDES FC. CONGENITAL AND ACQUIRED ANOMALIES OF THE OPTIC DISK. Arch Ophthalmol. 1940;23(5):1063–1089. doi:10.1001/archopht.1940.00860131191013
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