The comments presented here are derived from experience gained while teaching refraction to postgraduate students at the Knapp Memorial Eye Hospital during the past seven years. Variations in the procedures of refraction are numerous, each method being acclaimed the best by its particular advocate. A distinct difficulty is to define a standardized routine which will offer the student simplicity in operation combined with maximum efficiency. This difficulty exists despite the fact that procedures of refraction lend themselves with such apparent readiness to an accuracy of assessment not often duplicated in other branches of medicine.
CYCLOPLEGIA AND MYDRIASIS
Not the least important of controversial subjects is the matter of cycloplegia. The following quotation from Verhoeff's1 review of Cowan's "Refraction of the Eye" illustrates conflicting points of view :He [Cowan] makes no definite statement as to when cycloplegics should be used. He implies, however, that they should be used for all
FRIEDMAN B. COMMENTS ON THE TEACHING OF REFRACTION. Arch Ophthalmol. 1940;23(6):1175–1180. doi:10.1001/archopht.1940.00860131333006
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