Since the first clinical description of the condition known as pulsating exophthalmos by Travers in 1809, there have been 621 cases collected up to 1927. Because cases of this type are comparatively rare and because each author has usually seen only one or two cases of his own, there has been a great diversity of opinion as to their management. Wheeler in 1934 stated that "in the main, the handling of pulsating exophthalmos has been the discredit of the medical profession because methods have not been worked out in advance and the subect has not had careful thought by most surgeons. The principles involved in the surgical relief of pulsating exophthalmos should be in the minds of ophthalmologists." Harkness expressed the belief that "a condition of such rarity and with such striking symptomology is deserving of record whenever encountered."
We have reviewed the literature since Harkness' report, bringing the total
SUGAR HS, MEYER SJ. PULSATING EXOPHTHALMOS. Arch Ophthalmol. 1940;23(6):1288–1321. doi:10.1001/archopht.1940.00860131450018
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