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This is the twelfth in the series of monographs published under the auspices of the Société française d'ophtalmologie.
The first chapter deals with the history of ophthalmoscopy, beginning with the observations on the fundus reflex made by Aristotle and Pliny and ending with the revolutionary developments following the work of Helmholtz. The chapter on the ophthalmoscope is also largely historical, but in addition it includes descriptions of the most modern instruments and technics. Filtered, red-free and polarized illuminations are discussed, and methods of retinal photography are described. Two short chapters are devoted to a résumé of the anatomy and embryology of the eye.
The author's classification of developmental anomalies as fissural or nonfissural is necessarily incomplete and often confusing. For example, he lists colobomas of the optic nerve under "fissural anomalies." Fifty pages later, after having read about many other anomalies, including the numerous abnormalities of the blood vessels, the
G. M. Bruce. Les aspects normaux et les anomalies congénitales du fond de l'oeil.. Arch Ophthalmol. 1940;24(4):855. doi:10.1001/archopht.1940.00870040241028