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December 1940


Arch Ophthalmol. 1940;24(6):1113-1122. doi:10.1001/archopht.1940.00870060055003

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With the varying opinions as to the necessity of a routine examination of the muscles and with an almost equal variance in the choice of tests to be used, it is difficult to make a choice of procedure. There is, too, a hazy idea of what the tests are made for, why the tests vary in the amounts of deviation and what the results really mean.

The many diagnoses of exophoria, esophoria and hyperphoria, as such, without any further classification, seem to be evident proof that the underlying reasons for these phorias and tropias are not too clearly understood.

In postgraduate teaching and in various examinations I have found such a lack of definite understanding or purpose that a description of a well tested routine and the reasons for such would not be out of place.

A routine examination should include the following points, each to be considered in detail

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