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January 1943


Author Affiliations

From the Department of Ophthalmology of the New York Post-Graduate Medical School and Hospital (Columbia University).

Arch Ophthalmol. 1943;29(1):85-91. doi:10.1001/archopht.1943.00880130105006

During the past years many investigations and clinical studies have been made for the purpose of determining the primary causative factor of hypertensive vascular disease, or essential hypertension, but this factor has not as yet been established.

Hypertensive vascular disease is considered a clinical entity. It is extremely prevalent and in its terminal stages is liable to produce disastrous involvement of the vital organs. Its cardinal symptom is persistent high blood pressure.

Two forms of hypertensive disease are considered in this paper : essential benign hypertension and malignant hypertension. This classification is not accepted by all internists, but since it is in general use it will be employed here.

Essential benign hypertension (benign nephrosclerosis) occurs generally in middle-aged persons with persistent high blood pressure. The subjective symptoms are of a mild and chronic nature. The patient is apparently in good health and may live for many years. The vision frequently is

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