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March 1943


Author Affiliations

From the Department of Ophthalmology, Cook County Hospital.

Arch Ophthalmol. 1943;29(3):449-456. doi:10.1001/archopht.1943.00880150123007

Visual disturbances following a hemorrhage from any source are of two varieties. The first is purely functional and well recognized, generally follows closely or immediately after the hemorrhage and is probably due to an anemia of the cortical visual centers or, perhaps, of the retina, although no fundus changes are seen and the disturbance is usually transient. Recovery for the most part begins immediately and is usually complete.

The second variety, which will be discussed here, is rare, especially when one considers the common occurrence of a profound loss of blood. Fundus lesions are usually present.

The clinical syndrome was first referred to by Hippocrates. In 1865, Haddeus first described it as observed in the profound anemia associated with the comatose phase of typhus, and von Graefe, in the same year, described it as it appeared in the collapse state of cholera. Knapp described its occurrence in a case of