Congenital pigmentation of the optic disk is uncommon in the white race, whereas, according to Oguchi,1 it is frequently found in the Japanese.
Duke-Elder2 stated that the pigment on the disk may migrate from the choroid and show itself as a fleck form pigmentation, or the entire disk may be diffusely and uniformly pigmented—black or slate colored.
The pigment may be retinal in origin, occurring because some of the retinal pigment was ensnared in the embryonal glial tissue. More probably, however, the primitive cells of the optic stalk develop the characteristics of pigment-producing epithelium, in a place where pigment cells are not found.
In some cases the optic disk may contain holes or pits within its boundaries. These are localized colobomas and are the result of an outpouching of the secondary optic vesicle through the defective ocular tunics. These are usually on the lower temporal aspect of the
KRAVITZ D. PIGMENTATION OF OPTIC DISK. Arch Ophthalmol. 1943;29(5):826–830. doi:10.1001/archopht.1943.00880170146014
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